Saturday, May 11, 2013

History of William Harvey

William Harvey, discoverer of blood circulation and heart function, was born in 1578 in the town of Folkstone, England. Famous book An Anatomical Treatise on the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals (automatic motion of the heart and blood animal anatomy) published in 1628, aptly being called an important book on the history of physiology. It is, in fact, is the point of the birth of modern physiology. Its main significance lies not in immediate use but to laying the basic understanding that explains how the human body works.

For now we are brought up with the knowledge of blood circulation, will assume Harvey's theory as something completely obvious. But, what now seems so simple and obvious, not so well for biologists bygone eras. Leading writers in the field of biology has presented various opinions, among others: (1) the food is converted into blood in the heart, (2) heart warming food, (3) the blood vessels of the heart to the body filled the air, (4) heart makes " vital spirit "; (5) blood, both in vessels of the heart and to the ebb and flow to the heart and are often away from the heart.

Galen, the great physician in ancient times, people who personally researched and carefully reflect on the heart and blood vessels, never thought that the blood circulates. Also it escaped notice Aristotle although he paid attention to the biology major. Even after the publication of Harvey too many doctors are reluctant to accept that the blood in the human body is still spinning in the channel at a fixed system, and the heart provides the power to draw blood.

Harvey first formulate an opinion about the blood circulation by making a simple calculation arithmatik. He estimated that the amount of blood that is emitted by each heartbeat about 2 ounces. Because the heart beats 72 times per minute, the sum can be concluded about 540 pounds per hour emitted blood into the aorta. However, the amount that exceeds the amount of 540 pounds of body weight of a normal human, even surpassing the amount of weight itself. Because it was clear to Harvey that the same blood is still spinning through the heart. After formulating this hypothesis, nine years old he use to perform experiments and conduct thorough investigation to determine the details of the circulation of the blood.

In his book, Harvey clearly state that arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood back to the heart. In the absence of a microscope, Harvey can not see the capillaries, the smallest blood vessel that carries blood from the arteries to the smallest veins, but with exactly he concluded that there was. Harvey also pointed out that the function of the heart is pumping blood into the arteries. In this respect - as well as in the opinions of the importance of the other - Harvey's theory entirely true. Further than that he was presenting the results of the experiment are very valuable with good reason strut. Although at first the theory of Harvey gets fierce challenge, but at the end of his life his theory accepted.

Harvey was also involved in the field of Embryology, although less important than the investigation in terms of the circulation of the blood, not something that should be underestimated. He was a careful observer, and his book On the Generation of Animals (On-generation animal world), published in 1651 showed the beginning of the actual field of Embryology. As with Aristotle, whose strong influence once, Harvey rejected the theory that the overall structure of the animal body are the same as any young adult animals, with the only difference in size. Harvey rightly declared final structure of an embryo to grow step by step.

Harvey nearly all his life filled with happy, successful, and attractive. In their teens he entered Cambridge University. In the year 1600 he went to Italy to study medicine at the University of Padua, who was arguably the best medical schools in the world. (It should be noted, so Galileo professor there when Harvey learned there, though not sure if they ever met face). He graduated in Padua in 1602, returned to England, practiced medicine for a long time, and success. Among the many patients there were two kings of England (James I and Charles I), do not miss the famous philosopher Francis Bacon. He was, he taught in medical colleges in London and had been elected president of the rejection. And in addition to private practice, he became head physician at the Hospital St. Bartholomew, London. When his book about blood circulation published in 1628, suddenly his name famous throughout Europe. She married, but no children. At the age of seventy-six years he turned a blind eye in London.

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